The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the Irish Backstop, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement outlining provisions to avoid a hard border in Ireland after the UK`s withdrawal from the European Union. The protocol provided for a provision of the safety net to deal with the circumstances in which satisfactory alternative arrangements were to come into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol that will be described as follows. The EU and the UK have reached an agreement on the withdrawal agreement with a revised protocol on Ireland and Northern Ireland (abolition of the “backstop”) and a revised political declaration. On the same day, the European Council (Article 50) approved these texts. The project contains ten annexes. The first is a protocol to maintain an open border between the EU and the UK on the island of Ireland (usually known as the “Irish Backstop”). The second is the rules for establishing a common customs territory between the EU and the UK until a technical solution that allows both an open border and an independent customs policy can be found. The third area concerns the activities of the common customs territory. The fourth area concerns “good governance in the areas of taxation, environmental protection, social and labour standards, state aid, competition and state-owned enterprises.

The five to eighteen provisions relate to the relevant provisions of EU law. In the ninth and tenth versions of the procedures that arise from the main sections of the project. The text of the draft agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community, as concluded at the negotiating level on 14 November 2018, commonly referred to as the “draft withdrawal agreement”, has been made public. The most important elements of the draft agreement were:[21] The adoption of the agreement in the House of Commons ranged from cold to hostile, and the vote was delayed by more than a month. Prime Minister May has received a motion of no confidence within her own party, but the EU has refused to accept further changes. The United Kingdom and the European Union reached an agreement at the European Council on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union. The revised withdrawal agreement and the political declaration were discussed and approved at the European Council on 17 October 2019. The withdrawal agreement between the European Union and the United Kingdom sets out the conditions for the UK`s orderly exit from the EU, in accordance with Article 50 of the Treaty on european Union. The declaration on the future relationship between the European Union and the United Kingdom, also known as the Political Declaration, is a non-binding declaration, negotiated and signed at the same time as the mandatory and broader withdrawal agreement on the uk`s withdrawal from the European Union (EU), known as Brexit, and the planned end of the transition period.